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Microbial acidification, alcoholization, and aroma production during spontaneous lambic beer production

De Roos, Jonas, De Vuyst, Luc
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2019 v.99 no.1 pp. 25-38
acetic acid bacteria, acidification, acidity, barrels, beers, fermentation, lactic acid bacteria, odors, yeasts
Acidic beers, such as Belgian lambic beers and American and other coolship ales, are becoming increasingly popular worldwide thanks to their refreshing acidity and fruity notes. The traditional fermentation used to produce them does not apply pure yeast cultures but relies on spontaneous, environmental inoculation. The fermentation and maturation process is carried out in wooden barrels and can take up to three years. It is characterized by different microbial species belonging to the enterobacteria, acetic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. This review provides an introduction to the technology and four fermentation strategies of beer production, followed by the microbiology of acidic beer production, focusing on the main microorganisms present during the long process used for the production of Belgian lambic beers. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry