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Enhancement of simultaneous batik wastewater treatment and electricity generation in photocatalytic fuel cell
- Khalik, Wan Fadhilah, Ho, Li-Ngee, Ong, Soon-An, Voon, Chun-Hong, Wong, Yee-Shian, Yusuf, Sara Yasina, Yusoff, Nik Athirah, Lee, Sin-Li
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.35 pp. 35164-35175
- absorbance, absorption, aeration, chemical oxygen demand, decolorization, dyes, electricity generation, electrolytes, fuel cells, irradiation, pH, photocatalysis, photocatalysts, photolysis, resistors, sodium chloride, solar energy, wastewater, wastewater treatment, wavelengths
- The objective of this study was to investigate several operating parameters, such as open circuit, different external resistance, pH, supporting electrolyte, and presence of aeration that might enhance the degradation rate as well as electricity generation of batik wastewater in solar photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC). The optimum degradation of batik wastewater was at pH 9 with external resistor 250 Ω. It was observed that open circuit of PFC showed only 17.2 ± 7.5% of removal efficiency, meanwhile the degradation rate of batik wastewater was enhanced to 31.9 ± 15.0% for closed circuit with external resistor 250 Ω. The decolorization of batik wastewater in the absence of photocatalyst due to the absorption of light irradiation by dye molecules and this process was known as photolysis. The degradation of batik wastewater increased as the external resistor value decreased. In addition, the degradation rate of batik wastewater also increased at pH 9 which was 74.4 ± 34.9% and at pH 3, its degradation rate was reduced to 19.4 ± 8.7%. The presence of aeration and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte in batik wastewater also affected its degradation and electricity generation. The maximum absorbance of wavelength (λₘₐₓ) of batik wastewater at 535 nm and chemical oxygen demand gradually decreased as increased in irradiation time; however, batik wastewater required prolonged irradiation time to fully degrade and mineralize in PFC system.