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Steam activation of waste biomass: highly microporous carbon, optimization of bisphenol A, and diuron adsorption by response surface methodology

Zbair, Mohamed, Ainassaari, Kaisu, El Assal, Zouhair, Ojala, Satu, El Ouahedy, Nadia, Keiski, Riitta L., Bensitel, Mohammed, Brahmi, Rachid
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.35 pp. 35657-35671
X-radiation, X-ray diffraction, adsorbents, adsorption, aqueous solutions, biomass, bisphenol A, carbon, desorption, diuron, fluorescence, hulls, models, nitrogen, porous media, response surface methodology, scanning electron microscopy, sorption isotherms, steam, surface area, wastes
Highly microporous carbons were prepared from argan nut shell (ANS) using steam activation method. The carbons prepared (ANS@H2O-30, ANS@H2O-90, and ANS@H2O-120) were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, nitrogen adsorption, total X-ray fluorescence, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The ANS@H2O-120 was found to have a high surface area of 2853 m²/g. The adsorption of bisphenol A and diuron on ANS@H2O-120 was investigated. The isotherm data were fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich models. Langmuir isotherm model presented the best fit to the experimental data suggesting micropore filling of ANS@H2O-120. The ANS@H2O-120 adsorbent demonstrated high monolayer adsorption capacity of 1408 and 1087 mg/g for bisphenol A and diuron, respectively. The efficiency of the adsorption was linked to the porous structure and to the availability of the surface adsorption sites on ANS@H2O-120. Response surface method was used to optimize the removal efficiency of bisphenol A and diuron on ANS@H2O-120 from aqueous solution. Graphical abstract ᅟ