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Reaction wood anatomy and lignin distribution in Gnetum gnemon branches

Aiso-Sanada, Haruna, Ishiguri, Futoshi, Irawati, Denny, Wahyudi, Imam, Yokota, Shinso
Journal of wood science 2018 v.64 no.6 pp. 872-879
Angiospermae, Gnetum gnemon, absorbance, branches, cell walls, color, lignin, lignin content, physicochemical properties, reaction wood, tracheids
This study investigated the anatomical and chemical characteristics of the reaction wood of a gymnpsperm species, Gnetum gnemon, and discussed on contributing factor for the type of reaction wood in this species. Cell morphology, microfibril angle (MFA) of the S₂ layer and lignin distribution in secondary walls of tracheary elements, and lignin content were examined on three branches. Observations included no G-layer formation, significant decreases in vessel frequency, and altered MFA, and visible-light absorbance after lignin colour reactions in tracheid and fiber tracheid walls on the upper side in almost all samples. These results suggest that reaction wood in G. gnemon was similar to that in ‘tension-wood-like-reaction wood’ in angiosperms. On the other hand, reaction wood showed decrease in the lignin concentration in the fiber tracheid walls compared to the tracheid walls. In addition, the lignin in the tracheid and fiber tracheid walls was originally rich in syringyl units, suggesting that changes in the anatomical and chemical characteristics of secondary xylem due to reaction wood formation might relate to the ratio of the syringyl to guaiacyl units in lignin in the cell walls which function for mechanical support.