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Downstream components of the calmodulin signaling pathway in the rice salt stress response revealed by transcriptome profiling and target identification

Yuenyong, Worawat, Chinpongpanich, Aumnart, Comai, Luca, Chadchawan, Supachitra, Buaboocha, Teerapong
BMC plant biology 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 335
Oryza sativa, calcium, calcium signaling, calmodulin, carbon metabolism, complementary DNA, energy, enzymes, gene overexpression, genes, glycolysis, glyoxylate cycle, lipid metabolism, photosynthesis, rice, salt stress, salt tolerance, screening, starch, stress response, sucrose, transcription (genetics), transcriptomics, transgenic plants, tricarboxylic acid cycle
BACKGROUND: Calmodulin (CaM) is an important calcium sensor protein that transduces Ca²⁺ signals in plant stress signaling pathways. A previous study has revealed that transgenic rice over-expressing the calmodulin gene OsCam1–1 (LOC_Os03g20370) is more tolerant to salt stress than wild type. To elucidate the role of OsCam1–1 in the salt stress response mechanism, downstream components of the OsCam1–1-mediated response were identified and investigated by transcriptome profiling and target identification. RESULTS: Transcriptome profiling of transgenic ‘Khao Dawk Mali 105’ rice over-expressing OsCam1–1 and wild type rice showed that overexpression of OsCam1–1 widely affected the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes under salt stress, including signaling, hormone-mediated regulation, transcription, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, photosynthesis, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glyoxylate cycle. Under salt stress, the photosynthesis rate in the transgenic rice was slightly lower than in wild type, while sucrose and starch contents were higher, suggesting that energy and carbon metabolism were affected by OsCam1–1 overexpression. Additionally, four known and six novel CaM-interacting proteins were identified by cDNA expression library screening with the recombinant OsCaM1. GO terms enriched in their associated proteins that matched those of the differentially expressed genes affected by OsCam1–1 overexpression revealed various downstream cellular processes that could potentially be regulated by OsCaM1 through their actions. CONCLUSIONS: The diverse cellular processes affected by OsCam1–1 overexpression and possessed by the identified CaM1-interacting proteins corroborate the notion that CaM signal transduction pathways compose a complex network of downstream components involved in several cellular processes. These findings suggest that under salt stress, CaM activity elevates metabolic enzymes involved in central energy pathways, which promote or at least maintain the production of energy under the limitation of photosynthesis.