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Polyphenolic profiling of roots (Vitis spp.) under grape phylloxera (D. vitifoliae Fitch) attack

Eitle, Markus W., Loacker, Julia, Meng-Reiterer, Jacqueline, Schuhmacher, Rainer, Griesser, Michaela, Forneck, Astrid
Plant physiology and biochemistry 2019 v.135 pp. 174-181
Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Vitis, biosynthesis, climate, flavanols, gene expression, genetic background, herbivores, host-parasite relationships, hybrids, insects, plant response, polyphenols, root galls, root tips, rootstocks, secondary metabolites, stilbenes
Many plants respond to herbivore attacks by the formation of secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols. Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliaeFitch) induces organoid root galls on fibrous root tips of tolerant Vitis spp. rootstocks. We aim to understand if and how secondary metabolites are involved in the compatible interaction of D. vitifoliae and tolerant Vitis ssp. rootstocks belowground. We hypothise that D. vitifoliae infestation triggers the accumulation of phenolic key compounds in root gall tissue without preventing the compatible host-parasite interaction on two tolerant rootstocks with different genetic background: Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri x V. riparia) and Fercal (B.C. n°1B x 31 Richter). Plants and insects are grown in isolated climate chambers to sample root tips of non-infested plants (control) as well as root tips and galls of D. vitifoliae infested plants (5–14 dai). HPLC-MS-based analyses of phenolic key compounds are compared with gene expression levels of the biosynthetic phenylpropanoid pathway analysing temporal sequences of D. vitifoliae infested root tissue. The results show that the induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway by D. vitifoliae infestation plays an important role in the plant response. Concentrations of phenolic key compounds vary significantly among the rootstocks tested. Both rootstocks display an accumulation of flavan-3-ols and stilbenes in infested root gall tissue. Comparing the host responses of the two rootstocks Fercal shows a stronger accumulation of stilbenes locally in infested root galls, whereas Teleki 5C indicates elevated amounts of stilbenes in non-infested root tip tissue.