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Cell-type specific polysome profiling from mammalian tissues

Seimetz, Joseph, Arif, Waqar, Bangru, Sushant, Hernaez, Mikel, Kalsotra, Auinash
Methods 2019 v.155 pp. 131-139
gene expression regulation, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, mammals, messenger RNA, proteins, transcription (genetics), translation (genetics)
The regulation of gene expression occurs through complex relationships between transcription, processing, turnover, and translation, which are only beginning to be elucidated. We know that at least for certain messenger (m) RNAs, processing, modifications, and sequence elements can greatly influence their translational output through recognition by translation and turn-over machinery. Recently, we and others have combined high-throughput sequencing technologies with traditional biochemical methods of studying translation to extend our understanding of these relationships. Additionally, there is growing importance given to how these processes may be regulated across varied cell types as a means to achieve tissue-specific expression of proteins. Here, we provide an in-depth methodology for polysome profiling to dissect the composition of mRNAs and proteins that make up the translatome from both whole tissues and a specific cell type isolated from mammalian tissue. Also, we provide a detailed computational workflow for the analysis of the next-generation sequencing data generated from these experiments.