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Traqueobronquitis obstructiva por Aspergillus fumigatus en un paciente inmunocompetente

Romero-Palacios, Alberto, Mera Gallardo, Oliva, Jiménez Aguilar, Patricia, Borrallo Torrejón, José Javier, Maza Ortega, Carmen, Rodriguez-Iglesias, Manuel A.
Revista iberoamericana de micología 2019 v.36 no.1 pp. 34-36
Aspergillus fumigatus, Serratia marcescens, aspergillosis, bronchoscopy, fungi, hospitals, mucus, patients, pneumonia, trees
Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (ATB) is an uncommon type of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which fungal involvement is limited to the tracheobronchial tree. While the more severe forms, such as pseudomembranous and ulcerative ATB, occur almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, the milder obstructive form may occur in patients without immune deficiency.The case of a 32 year-old man with no previous history of illness, who was evaluated for recurrent right lower lobe pneumonia, is presented. Microbiological sputum studies revealed growth of Serratia marcescens, and a limited growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, the latter interpreted as a contaminant in the specimen. Bronchoscopy revealed a dense mucous plug at level B10 of the right lower lobe, which could not be removed; no other macroscopic findings of interest were observed. During his hospital admission, the patient expectorated the mucous plug and had a significant subsequent bronchorrhoea. A substantial number of colonies of A. fumigatus grown in the sputum cultures. The patient was given voriconazole, leading to a clinical resolution, with no recurrences.Obstructive ATB is characterised by the excessive production of thick, hyphae-laden mucus, which can obstruct the airway lumen and generate relapsing post-obstructive pneumonias. It is important to consider this diagnosis in immunocompetent patients with recurrent respiratory infections and who show repeated isolation of Aspergillus colonies in the sputum, even in small quantities.