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Biosynthesis and biomedical perspectives of carotenoids with special reference to human health-related applications

Khalid, Muhammad, Saeed-ur-Rahman,, Bilal, Muhammad, Iqbal, Hafiz M.N., Huang, Danfeng
Biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology 2019 v.17 pp. 399-407
biosynthesis, cardiovascular diseases, carotenes, cataract, chronic diseases, color, diet, eyes, fruits, genes, human diseases, humans, neoplasms, neural tube defects, pathogenesis, photosynthesis, pigments, plant health, risk reduction, vegetables, vision
Carotenoids are a group of versatile isoprenoid pigments, and bioactive constituents found predominantly in fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids play an essential role in the prevention of human diseases and thus facilitate to maintain a good health. They are effective health-promoting compounds, which are significant contributors to our diet and have been proposed to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, cataracts, and neural tube defects. They are an excellent scavenger of reactive oxygen species and contribute to immune the human body against various disorders and pathogenesis. Despite the above-mentioned roles, carotenoids impart different colors to our food and play a remarkable role in anti-oxidation as well as the main participant of provitamin A activity. Increasing research evidence suggests that proper intake of carotenoids reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and also promote eye health. The current review discusses the recent developments in biosynthesis, availability of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables along with their role in human and plant health. They also play key essential functions in plants, starting from photosynthetic pigments to potent anti-oxidant and their importance in gene regulation at the cellular level. The importance of carotenoids to prevent chronic human ailments including cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and its significance related to human eyesight as well as its role in plants have been discussed.