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Immune-Mediated Central Nervous System Disease—Current Knowledge and Recommendations
- Vitale, Samantha, Foss, Kari
- Topics in companion animal medicine 2019 v.34 pp. 22-29
- biopsy, central nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid, dog breeds, dog diseases, dogs, drug therapy, image analysis, immunosuppression, infectious diseases, inflammation, magnetic resonance imaging, medicine, pets, prognosis, signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
- Immune-mediated inflammation is responsible for about 25% of central nervous system disease in dogs. The disease can affect all ages and breeds, but young to middle-aged small breed dogs are over-represented for most forms. Diagnosis consists of advanced imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and infectious disease testing, but biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis and classification of the disease into one of the many subtypes. Treatment consists of immunosuppressive medication with the goal being to control and/or improve clinical signs. Current literature shows that prognosis is variable.