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Host-adapted Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in straw-colored fruit bats in Nigeria

Li, Na, Ayinmode, Adekunle B., Zhang, Hongwei, Feng, Yaoyu, Xiao, Lihua
International journal for parasitology 2019 v.8 pp. 19-24
Chiroptera, Cryptosporidium, DNA, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia lamblia, Primates, animal pathogens, feces, genes, genotype, humans, internal transcribed spacers, parasites, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, ribosomal RNA, sequence analysis, triose-phosphate isomerase, urban parks, China, Nigeria, Philippines
Few data are available on the distribution and human infective potential of Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in bats. In this preliminary study, we collected 109 fecal specimens during April–July 2011 from a colony of straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in an urban park (Agodi Gardens) of Ibadan, Nigeria, and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and E. bieneusi using PCR targeting the small subunit rRNA gene, triosephosphate isomerase gene, and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, respectively. Genotypes of these enteric parasites were determined by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. Altogether, 6 (5.5%), 0 and 16 (14.7%) specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products indicated the presence of two novel Cryptosporidium genotypes named as bat genotype XIV (in 5 specimens) and bat genotype XV (in 1 specimen) and one known E. bieneusi genotype (Type IV in 1 specimen) and two novel E. bieneusi genotypes (Bat1 in 13 specimens and Bat2 in 2 specimens). In phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences, the two novel Cryptosporidium genotypes were genetically related to Bat genotype II previously identified in fruit bats in China and Philippines, whereas the two novel E. bieneusi genotypes were genetically related to Group 5, which contains several known genotypes from primates. With the exception of Type IV, none of the Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi genotypes found in bats in this study are known human pathogens. Thus, straw-colored fruit bats in Nigeria are mainly infected with host-adapted Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi genotypes.