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Accumulation of glycolipids in wheat grain and their role in hardness during grain development
- Qin, Haixia, Ma, Dongyun, Huang, Xin, Zhang, Jie, Sun, Wan, Hou, Gege, Wang, Chenyang, Guo, Tiancai
- The crop journal 2019 v.7 no.1 pp. 19-29
- cultivars, endosperm, flowering, freeze drying, glycolipids, hardness, seed development, starch granules, transmission electron microscopy, wheat, wheat flour, whole grain flour
- Grain hardness is an important parameter for wheat quality. To understand the role of glycolipids in the formation of grain hardness, the glycolipid contents in wholegrain wheat flour and the starch granule surfaces of oven-dried and freeze-dried hard and soft wheat grain were analyzed. Changes in endosperm structure and amyloplast membrane integrity during grain development were also examined by electron microscopy. The monogalactosyldigylcerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldigylcerol (DGDG) contents of the starch surface were significantly higher in soft wheat than in hard wheat, regardless of the drying method or developmental stage. Throughout grain development, MGDG content was significantly higher in the starch surface of freeze-dried hard wheat than in the starch surface of oven-dried hard wheat. In contrast, the MGDG content of the starch surface was significantly higher in freeze-dried soft grain at 14 and 35days after anthesis. No significant difference was observed in puroindoline protein (PIN) accumulation in wholegrain flour from wheat that was dried using the two methods, whereas PIN accumulation on the starch surface of freeze-dried grain was lower than that on the starch surface of oven-dried grain. The gap between the amyloplast membrane and starch granules was larger in hard wheat than in soft wheat, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. For the same wheat cultivar, this gap was larger for oven-dried than for freeze-dried grain. The content of polar lipids in the starch surface was closely related to grain hardness, and the breakdown of the amyloplast membrane may determine the location of polar lipids on the starch surface.