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Fumaric acid production using renewable resources from biodiesel and cane sugar production processes

Papadaki, Aikaterini, Papapostolou, Harris, Alexandri, Maria, Kopsahelis, Nikolaos, Papanikolaou, Seraphim, de Castro, Aline Machado, Freire, Denise M. G., Koutinas, Apostolis A.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.36 pp. 35960-35970
Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus arrhizus, amino nitrogen, biodiesel, bioprocessing, enzymatic hydrolysis, enzymes, fuel production, fumaric acid, hydrolysates, minerals, molasses, phenolic compounds, soybean cake, sugarcane, sugars
The microbial production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 2582 has been evaluated using soybean cake from biodiesel production processes and very high polarity (VHP) sugar from sugarcane mills. Soybean cake was converted into a nutrient-rich hydrolysate via a two-stage bioprocess involving crude enzyme production via solid state fermentations (SSF) of either Aspergillus oryzae or R. arrhizus cultivated on soybean cake followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean cake. The soybean cake hydrolysate produced using crude enzymes derived via SSF of R. arrhizus was supplemented with VHP sugar and evaluated using different initial free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/L) in fed-batch cultures for fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentration (27.3 g/L) and yield (0.7 g/g of total consumed sugars) were achieved when the initial FAN concentration was 200 mg/L. The combination of VHP sugar with soybean cake hydrolysate derived from crude enzymes produced by SSF of A. oryzae at 200 mg/L initial FAN concentration led to the production of 40 g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.86 g/g of total consumed sugars. The utilization of sugarcane molasses led to low fumaric acid production by R. arrhizus, probably due to the presence of various minerals and phenolic compounds. The promising results achieved through the valorization of VHP sugar and soybean cake suggest that a focused study on molasses pretreatment could lead to enhanced fumaric acid production.