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Phylogeny of Tricorythodes Ulmer (Leptohyphidae: Ephemeroptera) based on molecular and morphological evidence

Dias, Lucimar G., Molineri, Carlos, Takiya, Daniela, Benavides, Pablo, Bacca, Tito
Zoologischer Anzeiger 2019 v.278 pp. 38-45
Bayesian theory, Ephemeroptera, biogeography, ecology, mitochondria, monophyly, nucleotide sequences, polyphyly, ribosomal DNA, statistical analysis
The first phylogeny of Tricorythodes Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) based on molecular and morphological evidence is presented. A parsimony analysis was conducted with 56 morphological (24 continuous and 32 discrete) characters of 48 species, 39 belonging to Tricorythodes sensu lato and nine additional groups. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of molecular and combined molecular and morphological (32 discrete) data included a total of 22 taxa for which it was possible to extract DNA. DNA sequences used correspond to fragments of the nuclear 18S rDNA and the mitochondrial COI and 16S rDNA (total of 1804 bp). Tricorythodes sensu lato monophyly was tested, as well as validity of some recently proposed related genera. Results of this work fully support the synonymy of Epiphrades and Tricorythodes, as suggested by previous authors. Part of the analyses also support the synonymy of Asioplax and Homoleptohyphes with Tricorythodes, but they change position radically when morphology alone (parsimony) and the combined data (Bayesian and maximum likelihood) are analyzed. Furthermore, Tricoryhyphes was recovered as a polyphyletic group and Cabecar and Loricyphes appeared nested well within Tricorythodes sensu lato. Monophyletic groups of species inside this large Panamerican genus were found. A phylogenetic framework for the group is much needed to better understand the evolution of disparate nymphal body form, ecology and biogeography inside this genus.