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Associations between inhaled doses of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fractional exhaled nitric oxide

Li, Tian, Wang, Yao, Hou, Jian, Zheng, Dan, Wang, Guiyang, Hu, Chen, Xu, Tian, Cheng, Juan, Yin, Wenjun, Mao, Xiang, Wang, Lin, He, Zhenyu, Yuan, Jing
Chemosphere 2019 v.218 pp. 992-1001
acute exposure, air, biomarkers, breathing, nitric oxide, particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, regression analysis, students, China
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is linked to various respiratory outcomes. However, the associations of concentrations of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM2.5-bound PAHs) with airway inflammatory indices remains unclear. To assess effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5-bound PAHs on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), we conducted a pilot study with repeated measures. We recruited 20 postgraduate students in Wuhan city, China, and repeatedly measured outdoor and indoor (including dormitories, offices and laboratories) PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations, urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and FeNO levels in the four seasons. Subsequently, we estimated inhaled doses of PM2.5-bound PAHs based on the micro-environmental PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations, time-activity patterns and referred inhalation rates. We assessed the association of inhaled doses of PM2.5-bound PAHs with FeNO using linear mixed-effects regression models. We found the positive associations of urinary ∑OH-PAHs levels with inhaled doses of indoor PM2.5-bound PAHs (including dormitories and offices) (all p < 0.05). A one-unit increase in inhaled doses of PM2.5-bound PAHs or in urinary concentrations of ∑OH-PAHs was corresponded to a maximum FeNO increase of 13.5% (95% CI: 5.4, 22.2) at lag2 day or of 6.8% (95% CI: 3.4, 10.2) at lag1 day. Inhaled doses of PM2.5-bound PAHs or urinary OH-PAHs was positively related to increased FeNO, they may be accepted as a short-term biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air. Exposure to PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor air may contribute more to the body burden of PAHs than outdoor air, and exhibited stronger effect on increased FeNO rather than urinary OH-PAHs.