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Transport of platinum-based pharmaceuticals in water-saturated sand and natural soil: Carboplatin and cisplatin species

Goykhman, Natalia, Dror, Ishai, Berkowitz, Brian
Chemosphere 2019 v.219 pp. 390-399
cisplatin, sand, soil pollution, soil water, water resources
This study reports the transport characteristics of the pharmaceutical compounds carboplatin and cisplatin, and their respective derivatives, in saturated sand and soil columns. Pharmaceuticals are recognized as emerging pollutants of soil and water resources, but studies of the transport characteristics of organometallic pharmaceuticals in soil-water environments are rare. A recent study of oxaliplatin transport in natural soil raises the question of whether or not its behavior is representative of all Pt-based pharmaceuticals behavior in soil-water systems. To address this question, transport behaviors of carboplatin and cisplatin species were studied individually in packed sand columns under unamended conditions, and in packed soil columns under unamended and acetate-amended conditions. In contrast to oxaliplatin, carboplatin species exhibited very low affinity to both sand and soil surfaces: the retention of injected carboplatin was 3% and <6% for sand and soil, respectively. The affinity to soil was practically the same under the different redox conditions. The affinity of carboplatin to sand and soil surfaces was much smaller than the reported oxaliplatin affinity and the values reported in the literature. Cisplatin exhibited transport behavior similar to that of oxaliplatin in soil, including mild sensitivity to redox conditions (e.g., higher retention under acetate-amended conditions), overall exhibiting retention of 64–70% of the injected species. However, cisplatin also exhibited a similar retention in sand (retention of 45–53%), unlike the cases of carboplatin and oxaliplatin. The results indicate that similarly structured pharmaceuticals can exhibit very different transport characteristic in natural soil-water environments, and should therefore be studied and assessed individually.