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Impact of environmental pollution on trace elements in vegetables and associated potential risk to human health in industrial town Mandi-gobindgarh (India)

Mandal, Reshu, Kaur, Sukhbir
Chemosphere 2019 v.219 pp. 574-587
Brassica, Coriandrum sativum, adults, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, children, copper, eggplants, food contamination, fruits, human health, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, pollution, potatoes, radishes, risk, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, zinc, India
Present study was chosen to elucidate the role of Environmental Pollution in the contamination of vegetables with trace elements in Mandi-gobindgarh (India) and associated potential risk to human health. Total 14 vegetable types including leafy vegetables (Brassica, Metha, Coriander, Spinach, Cabbage), fruit vegetables (Brinjal, Cauliflower, Bottle-gourd, Tomato, Green chilli) and root vegetables (Radish, Carrot, Turnip, Potato) were collected from Mandi-gobindgarh and analyzed for Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Fe on WD-XRF. Results showed more than permissible limits of Zn (23.60–137.60 mg/kg), Cu (20.30–251.60 mg/kg), Mo (5.50–213.60 mg/kg), Se (8.33–11.20 mg/kg) and Fe (21.60–452.70 mg/kg) whereas lower contents of Mn (10.70–112.30 mg/kg) and Ni (6.50–12.00 mg/kg) in the vegetables. Daily intakes calculated for Zn, Mn, Ni and Fe in children and adults were less than their RDA/AI/UL (except Mn and Fe in leafy vegetables). However, daily intakes of Cu, Mo and Se were found higher than their RDA except Cu in few vegetables. Hazard quotients (HQs) calculated in children and adults were more than 1 (HQ > 1) for Cu, Mo and Se whereas less than 1 (HQ < 1) for Zn, Mn, Ni and Fe. Hazard Index (HI) in children and adults was observed more than one in 11 vegetable types with maximum contamination in Tomato and minimum in Coriander except Radish and Carrot (uncontaminated vegetables). It was concluded that Environmental Pollution in Mandi-gobindgarh has increased the metal contents of Zn, Cu, Mo, Se and Fe in the vegetables but health risks in children and adults were evaluated due to higher Cu, Mo and Se contents in the vegetables.