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Iron mediated hematological, oxidative and histological alterations in freshwater fish Labeo rohita

Singh, Mamta, Barman, Anindya Sundar, Devi, Asem Lembika, Devi, Ayam Gangarani, Pandey, Pramod Kumar
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2019 v.170 pp. 87-97
Labeo rohita, adverse effects, antioxidants, aquaculture systems, catalase, enzyme activity, erythrocytes, freshwater fish, gills, hemoglobin, histology, iron, iron overload, lethal concentration 50, leukocyte count, lipid peroxidation, liver, mountains, oxidative stress, staining, superoxide dismutase, surface water, toxicity
Iron is an essential element for many physiological functions of several organisms but in excess it causes toxicity. High iron content in water bodies of mountainous states is considered as one of the major factor, responsible for low productivity in aquaculture systems. But, till date comprehensive reports on the adverse effect of iron overload in aquatic organisms, especially cultured fishes are scanty. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the adverse effects of iron overload in economically important aquaculture fish species Labeo rohita. Three sub-lethal test concentration of iron (ferrous) viz., 1/16th, 1/8th and 1/4th of LC50 (post 96 h) i.e. 8.25, 16.51 and 33.01 mg L−1, respectively, were used for in vivo exposure. Blood cells and tissue samples of the control & exposed specimens were sampled at intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h to assess alterations in hematological, oxidative stress and histological parameters. Significant changes in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activity (super oxide dismutase and catalase) and tissue iron accumulation were observed in the exposed fish. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation, coupled with significant reduction in free radicals scavengers like super oxide dismutase and catalase revealed a compromised anti-oxidative defense mechanism in the fishes exposed to iron overload. Histological examination of gills and liver showed severe tissue injury and histological alternations. Severity was found to increase in time and concentration dependent manner. Perl's staining revealed accumulation of excess iron in liver of the exposed fish. The observed patho-physiological changes in the present study provide the most comprehensive insight of iron overload stress in L. rohita.