U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Enzyme-based biosensors for choline analysis: A review

Parvaneh Rahimi, Yvonne Joseph
Trends in analytical chemistry 2019 v.110 pp. 367-374
Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, acetylcholine, biomarkers, biosensors, choline, commercialization, cost effectiveness, electrochemistry, liver, metabolism, metabolites, monitoring, muscles, neoplasms, neurotransmitters, risk
Choline is an essential nutrient that is crucial for normal cellular function and its daily intake is recommended by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Choline and its derivatives play important roles in such events as neurotransmitter acetylcholine synthesis, cell-membrane signaling, liver and muscle function. Choline deficiency is now thought to have an impact on disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and also increases the risk of multiple cancers. Monitoring of choline level or its metabolism allows its application as a potential biomarker for early stage diagnosis. In comparison to the expensive, time-consuming and relatively complicated traditional methods, biosensors provide an easy, cost-effective, disposable, sensitive and specific sensing platform. In this manuscript, the innovative strategies used to develop electrochemical and optical enzyme-based biosensors for choline are reviewed. We believe that this review provides an insight for the development of novel biocompatible nanocomposites-based biosensors for the detection of choline and its metabolites covering its future prospects and commercialization.