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Perspectives of nanotechnology in male fertility and sperm function

Falchi, Laura, Khalil, Wael A., Hassan, Mahmoud, Marei, Waleed F.A.
International Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2018 v.6 no.2 pp. 265-269
animal reproduction, antimicrobial properties, antioxidants, assisted reproductive technologies, cryopreservation, environmental impact, farmed animal species, ligands, male fertility, males, medicine, nanoparticles, spermatozoa, transgenesis
Recent advances in nanotechnology have tremendously expanded its possible applications in biomedicine. Although, the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) at cellular and tissue levels have not been fully understood, some of these biological effects might be employed in assisted reproduction to improve male fertility particularly by enhancing sperm cell quality either in vivo or in vitro. This review summarises the available literature regarding the potential applications of nanomaterials in farm animal reproduction, with a specific focus on the male gamete and on different strategies to improve breeding performances, transgenesis and targeted delivery of substances to a sperm cell. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and special surface binding ligand functionalization and their applications for sperm processing and cryopreservation have been reviewed. In addition, nanotoxicity and detrimental effects of NPs on sperm cells are also discussed due to the increasing concerns regarding the environmental impact of the expanding use of nanotechnologies on reproduction.