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Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) alters gut microbiota and modulates redox status, partially via caffeine in Wistar rats

Kleber Silveira, Alexandre, Moresco, Karla Suzana, Mautone Gomes, Henrique, da Silva Morrone, Maurílio, Kich Grun, Lucas, Pens Gelain, Daniel, de Mattos Pereira, Leandro, Giongo, Adriana, Rodrigues De Oliveira, Rafael, Fonseca Moreira, José Cláudio
Phytotherapy research 2018 v.32 no.12 pp. 2466-2474
Paullinia cupana, animal models, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, caffeine, colon, diet, enzymes, intestinal microorganisms, kidneys, liver, medicinal plants, polyphenols, rats, ribosomal DNA, sequence analysis, toxicity
Microbiota alterations are observed in pathological conditions, and their regulation is a subject of great interest. Gut microbes are affected by diet, and plant polyphenols may have positive effect on gut microbiota; however, plant‐derived extracts may have toxic effects. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is a nontraditional medicinal plant applied worldwide. Guarana yields an alkaloid and polyphenol‐rich seed with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti‐inflammatory properties, where caffeine is the major compound. We evaluated the effects of guarana seed powder (GSP) and purified caffeine on gut microbial composition and redox and inflammatory parameters in Wistar rats after 21 days of treatment. Fecal microbiota was analyzed utilizing 16S rDNA sequencing. Antioxidant enzymes activities from liver, kidney, and colon, as well as oxidative damage markers, were evaluated. Total nonenzymatic antioxidant potential was also evaluated. Microbiota was altered by both treatments, GSP and caffeine, without loss of diversity. In the liver, the kidney, and the colon, we observed a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the GSP group with no increase in the expression of oxidative damage markers, although some enzymes were also regulated by caffeine. Taken together, these results suggested that GSP ameliorates redox parameters but negatively affected gut microbiota, partially via caffeine.