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The enhanced replication of an S-intact PEDV during coinfection with an S1 NTD-del PEDV in piglets

Su, Yunfang, Hou, Yixuan, Wang, Qiuhong
Veterinary microbiology 2019 v.228 pp. 202-212
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, atrophy, bile, bile acids, cattle, diarrhea, farms, germ-free animals, intestines, mixed infection, mucins, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, piglets, swine diseases, virus replication
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variants having a large deletion in the N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit of spike (S) protein were designated as S1 NTD-del PEDVs. They replicate well in experimentally infected pigs. However, on farms they often co-infect pigs with the PEDV containing an intact S protein (S-intact PEDV). We aimed to characterize viral replication and pathogenesis in neonatal gnotobiotic pigs infected simultaneously with the two types of PEDV using two recombinant PEDVs: icPC22A and its S1 NTD-del form icPC22A-S1Δ197. Additionally, viral replication was compared in Vero and IPEC-DQ cells at the presence of bovine mucin (BM), porcine gastric mucin (PGM), swine bile and bile acids during inoculation. In the pigs coinfected with icPC22A and icPC22A-S1Δ197, icPC22A replicated to a higher peak titer than its infection of pigs without the presence of icPC22A-S1Δ197. The severity of diarrhea and intestinal atrophy were similar between icPC22A and the coinfection groups, but were significantly higher than icPC22A-S1Δ197 group. In Vero and IPEC-DQ cells, certain concentrations of BM, PGM, bile and bile acids increased significantly the infectivity of icPC22A but had no or negative effects on icPC22A-S1Δ197. These results indicated that the replication of the S-intact PEDV was enhanced during coinfection in piglets. This observation may be explained partially by the fact that mucin, bile and bile acids in gastrointestinal tract had facilitating effects on the infection of S-intact PEDV, but no/inhibition effects on S1 NTD-del PEDV.