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Impact of mulching on growth essential oil composition and its biological activity in Monarda didyma L.

Wróblewska, Katarzyna, Szumny, Antoni, Żarowska, Barbara, Kromer, Krystyna, Dębicz, Regina, Fabian, Saskia
Industrial crops and products 2019 v.129 pp. 299-308
Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Monarda didyma, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial properties, bacteria, chemical composition, essential oils, fabrics, flowering, herbal medicines, honey, isomers, juveniles, leaves, linalool, methyl ethers, mulching, oils, oregano, p-cymene, polypropylenes, sage, terpinolene, thymol, yeasts
The primary focus was the determination of the yield and chemical composition of essential oils of honey balm (Monarda didyma L.) leaves and flowers as affected by using modern water-retention systems in the form of synthetic mulches: polypropylene non-woven textile compared with fabric and additionally supplemented with the geocomposite. The leaves were harvested for six months during subsequent plant development stages, through juvenile and generative to cessation of growth. Used in experiments, synthetic mulches contributed to reduced growth, fresh weight and flowering of Monarda ‘Scorpio’ plants. But these were not affected by the application of geocomposite. Twenty-nine constituents found in the green tissue samples of Monarda ‘Scorpio’ turn out to be mainly terpenoids with linalool (pure (R)-(-) isomer), p-cymene, thymol and thymol methyl ether as main compounds. The different chemical composition was represented by the flowers essential oil which possesses p-cymene and terpinolene (above 80%) as main compounds. Monarda ‘Scorpio’ oil revealed the strong antimicrobial activity and completely inhibited the growth of Candida albicans yeast as well as Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria in a concentration of 0.01%. In the other tested bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), elongation of the lag phase was determined or effectiveness at only higher (0.1%) concentrations of essential oil. Proven in our experiments, antimicrobial activity of Monarda 'Scorpio' EO was higher than that described in European Pharmacopoeia for used in herbal medicine sage, and comparable to the effectiveness of oregano.