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A waste-minimized biorefinery scenario for the hierarchical conversion of agricultural straw into prebiotic xylooligosaccharides, fermentable sugars and lithium-sulfur batteries
- Xu, Jikun, Liu, Bingchuan, Wu, Longsheng, Hu, Jingping, Hou, Huijie, Yang, Jiakuan
- Industrial crops and products 2019 v.129 pp. 269-280
- batteries, biofuels, biomass, biorefining, carbon, cathodes, cellulose, digestibility, energy, enzymatic hydrolysis, feedstocks, glucose, hot water treatment, lignin, moieties, molecular weight, prebiotics, protocols, sulfur, surface area, value added, wheat straw, xylan, xylooligosaccharides
- How to exert the value-added superiority was a key link in the development of biomass valorization that heightens an appeal for a waste-minimized protocol. The fractional use of three building blocks in biomass became an urgent challenge to be faced. Herein, we report an autohydrolysis-aided biorefinery for the sequential conversion of wheat straw hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin into xylooligosaccharides (XOS), fermentable glucose and lithium-sulfur cathode at the end of the process, respectively. The yield of XOS (DP of 2–6) reached up to 24.06% (w/w) of xylan and 6.19% (w/w) of the initial biomass. The hydrothermal treatment removed the amorphous portion and disrupted the rigid structure, thereby improving the cellulose digestibility from 14.1 to 88.9%. The molecular weights, functional groups and structural features of residual lignin after enzymatic hydrolysis were thoroughly explored for the cathode of lithium-sulfur batteries via the carbonizing process. Because of the considerable surface area, the covalent linkage between the lignin-derived carbon (LC) and sulfur, and the uniform dispersion of sulfur particles, the developed LC@S cathode exhibited excellent rate capability, and the specific capacity of 1238, 1085 and 1035 mA h g−1 at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 C, respectively. The LC@S cathode retained 596 mA h g−1 after 200 cycles at 0.5 C with a coulombic efficiency of 92%. The present study provides a systematic strategy that bears the primary responsibility for exploiting biomass into a potential feedstock with worthwhile functions in the thriving domains of chemicals, biofuels and energy storage devices.