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Light-induced mechanisms for nanocarrier’s cargo release

Sanchis, Ana, Salvador, J.-Pablo, Marco, M.-Pilar
Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.173 pp. 825-832
adverse effects, biochemical compounds, colloids, diagnostic techniques, monitoring, nanocarriers
Nanomaterials have been the focus of attention in several fields, including biomedicine, electronics, or catalysis, mainly due to the novel properties of the materials at the nanoscale. In the field of diagnosis, nanomaterials have been contemplated as an opportunity to improve sensitivity and time of response, therefore, facilitating early treatment and monitoring of the disease. For therapeutic applications, new drug delivery nanosystems aiming to provide enhanced efficiency have been proposed often addressing selective or controlled delivery of therapeutic agents to particular cells to maximize treatment efficacy minimizing adverse effects. The therapeutic agents can be dissolved, adsorbed, entrapped, encapsulated or attached on the surface or inside the nanocarriers. Given the context of the different generations of nanocarriers and their wide range of applications, the present article aims to discuss the nature of external stimuli which will trigger the controlled release of different biomolecules. For each class, a brief description of the physical principle, basic concepts, as well as some examples, are reported. A final discussion focused on the real implications and needs for optimal drug delivery system is presented, altogether with some considerations and prospects in the trends that diagnostics applications could follow in the next years.