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Clotrimazole multiple W/O/W emulsion as anticandidal agent: Characterization and evaluation on skin and mucosae

Soriano-Ruiz, José L., Suñer-Carbó, Joaquim, Calpena-Campmany, Ana C., Bozal-de Febrer, Nuria, Halbaut-Bellowa, Lyda, Boix-Montañés, Antonio, Souto, Eliana B., Clares-Naveros, Beatriz
Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.175 pp. 166-174
Candida, ambient temperature, antifungal properties, candidiasis, clotrimazole, colloids, emulsions, hysteresis, models, pH, permeability, skin (animal), storage temperature, storage time, swine, vaginal mucosa, viscosity, zeta potential
Clotrimazole (CLT) was formulated in a multiple W/O/W emulsion (ME) with the aim of evaluating its potential as topical anticandidal agent and comparing with marketed products. A previously evaluated CLT-ME was selected and physicochemically characterized. The in vitro release behavior and the ex vivo permeation profiles were assessed using Franz diffusion cells using three different types of biological membranes: human skin and porcine buccal, sublingual and vaginal mucosae. The antifungal activity against Candida strains was also tested. Results showed CLT-MEs sizes of 29.206 and 47.678 μm with skin compatible pH values of 6.47 and 6.42 exhibiting high zeta potential values of -55.13 and -55.59 mV with dependence on the pH variation. The physicochemical stability was kept for a period of 180 days of storage at room temperature. CLT-MEs exhibited pseudoplastic behavior with hysteresis areas and viscosities of 286 and 331 mPa⋅s showing higher spreadability properties than commercial counterparts. An improved CLT release pattern was supplied by the ME system following a hyperbolic model. Likewise, ME system gave higher skin permeation flux of CLT than commercial reference. CLT amounts retained in the skin and mucosae were also higher than commercial references, which coupled with the higher antimycotic efficacy make CLT-MEs a great tool for clinical investigation of topical candidiasis treatments.