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System metabolic engineering of exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria in soil rehabilitation by inducing the formation of biological soil crusts: A review

Tiwari, Onkar Nath, Bhunia, Biswanath, Mondal, Abhijit, Gopikrishna, Konga, Indrama, Thingujam
Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.211 pp. 70-82
Cyanobacteria, biological soil crusts, biomass production, biosynthesis, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide fixation, exopolysaccharides, inoculum, metabolic engineering, physicochemical properties
Cyanobacteria are considered as a potential candidate for amelioration of soil environments as well as production of exopolysacharide but are currently underutilized due to lack of genetic tools. Therefore, metabolic engineering using systems biology tools can be an alternative approach to overproduce exopolysacharide (EPS) for generation of artificially induced biological soil crusts (BSCs). Combining the carbon fixation and enhanced light utilization with an engineered metabolic pathway can allow carbon-based product formation from CO2, light, and water directly. The metabolic pathway can be modified by construction of new biosynthesis routes and utilized for higher production of EPS which will facilitate to generate effective BSCs. Additionally; optimization of nutritional and process parameters as well as various flow regimes improve the cyanobacterial biomass production in large scale which will help dispersion of inoculum in the field. This review covers development of highly efficient cell factories using systems biology tools through identification of metabolic engineering targets for high yield production of exopolysaccharide. Additionally, engineering approaches for the high yield cyanobacterial inoculum preparation for generation of BSCs through optimization nutritional and physicochemical parameters are critically reviewed.