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Putative Rust Fungal Effector Proteins in Infected Bean and Soybean Leaves

Bret Cooper, Kimberly B. Campbell, Hunter S. Beard, Wesley M. Garrett, Nazrul Islam
Phytopathology 2016 v.106 no.5 pp. 491-499
Glycine max, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Phaseolus vulgaris, Uromyces appendiculatus, beans, biochemical mechanisms, cell membranes, cell walls, crop production, data collection, disease resistance, fungal proteins, fungal spores, glycosidases, glycosides, host-pathogen relationships, leaves, mass spectrometry, pathogenicity, plant pathogenic fungi, rust diseases, secretion, soybeans, spore germination
The plant pathogenic fungi Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi cause debilitating rust diseases on common bean and soybean. These rust fungi secrete effector proteins that allow them to infect plants, but their effector repertoires are not understood. The discovery of rust fungus effectors may eventually help guide decisions and actions that mitigate crop production loss. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to identify thousands of proteins in infected beans and soybeans and in germinated fungal spores. The comparative analysis between the two helped differentiate a set of 24 U. appendiculatus proteins targeted for secretion that were specifically found in infected beans and a set of 34 U. appendiculatus proteins targeted for secretion that were found in germinated spores and infected beans. The proteins specific to infected beans included family 26 and family 76 glycoside hydrolases that may contribute to degrading plant cell walls. There were also several types of proteins with structural motifs that may aid in stabilizing the specialized fungal haustorium cell that interfaces the plant cell membrane during infection. There were 16 P. pachyrhizi proteins targeted for secretion that were found in infected soybeans, and many of these proteins resembled the U. appendiculatus proteins found in infected beans, which implies that these proteins are important to rust fungal pathology in general. This data set provides insight to the biochemical mechanisms that rust fungi use to overcome plant immune systems and to parasitize cells.