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Studies on release methods of Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), parasitoid of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu), into Turkey from Italy

M. Doğanlar, K. Senan Savaş
Acta horticulturae 2018 v. no.1220 pp. 109-112
Castanea, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, Torymus, adults, biological control, buds, cold, galls, hatching, larvae, mountains, oviposition, parasitoids, saplings, villages, weather, Italy, Japan, Marmara Sea, Turkey (country), United States
The Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp (ACGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), is a major pest of Castanea spp. in Asia, the USA and Europe. Based on successful biological control of the ACGW in Japan using Torymus sinensis Kamijo, work on the process of introduction of the parasite was performed as a sustainable approach for controlling the pest in the USA and in Italy. In Turkey the ACGW was found in Yalova, Gemlik, Bursa in 2014, and in 2017 ACGW extended from Yalova and Gemlik to new areas in the Marmara region including Orhangazi, Yıldırım, İznik, Mudanya, İnegöl, Center of Bursa; Tepeköy, Kartepe, Kocaeli (İzmit); Samanli Mountains, Pamukova, Sakarya; Şile, İstanbul and Ödemiş, İzmir. Introduction programs of T. sinensis from Podova University, Italy to Turkey was started in May, 2014, and (a) a laboratory was built in Gacik, Yalova, (b) some parts of a chestnut tree were screened by fine cloth, (c) about 250 saplings were placed under chestnut trees for oviposition by ACGW in Summer, 2014. At the end of March, 2015, adults of T. sinensis and about 2000 galls of ACGW were brought to Yalova from Italy. The adults were fed on honey-drops and released to sites having newly developed buds with galls of ACGW. Due to cold weather in April 2015, good release sites could not be found. In October 2015 300 galls were collected and dissected for checking the success of the release. However, no larvae of T. sinensis were found. At the end of April 2016, some galls of ACGW were brought to Yalova again, and the hatching parasitoid adults were released on trees having newly developed buds. In September 2016 about 500 galls were collected from the release sites and dissected but only one larva was found. In August 2017, 130 galls of ACGW from the release sites were collected and dissected. T. sinensis larvae were obtained from 16% of the galls around Gacik village, Yalova.