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Mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti from Colombia

Aponte, Angélica, Penilla, R. Patricia, Rodríguez, Américo D., Ocampo, Clara B.
Acta tropica 2019 v.191 pp. 146-154
Aedes aegypti, DDT (pesticide), alleles, arboviruses, bioassays, cross resistance, deltamethrin, dengue, enzyme activity, esterases, glutathione transferase, insecticide resistance, malathion, mutation, permethrin, propoxur, pyrethrins, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, resistance management, resistance mechanisms, vector control, Colombia
In Colombia Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of urban arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. This urban mosquito has a well-established capacity to develop insecticide resistance to different types of insecticides (pyrethroids, organochlorides, organophosphates), using multiple resistance mechanisms. An understanding of ongoing resistance mechanisms is critical to determining the activities of vector control programs.In order to identify the biochemical and molecular mechanisms associated with pyrethroid resistance in Colombia, three laboratory-selected strains resistant to DDT, Propoxur and lambdacyhalothrin, and 7 field-collected strains were evaluated. CDC bioassays were performed to measure the susceptibility status to pyrethroid type I (permethrin) and II (deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin), and potential cross-resistance to different types of insecticides; organochlorine (DDT), carbamates (propoxur) and organophosphates (malathion). The enzymatic activity of esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and P450 monooxygenases were biochemically determined. Frequencies of kdr mutations Val1016Ile and Phe1534cys were determined through real-time PCR. The Rockefeller strain of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was used as the susceptible control.The laboratory-selected strains “propoxur” and “lambdacyhalothrin” and one field population (Medellín (BF) F2 were resistant to all evaluated pyrethroids. Six of the seven field populations as well as the laboratory- selected “DDT” strain were resistant to permethrin. All the evaluated strains were resistant to DDT. Cross-resistance between lambdacyhalothrin and propoxur was observed in the laboratory-selected strains; however, all field-collected strains were susceptible to propoxur and no evidence of malathion resistance was found. The main biochemical mechanism for resistance observed in the field-collected strains was related to the enzyme GST. Further, the frequencies of kdr mutations alleles associated with insecticide resistance were high and ranged from 0.02 to 0.72 for Ile1016 and from 0.44 to 0.99 for Cys1534. Strains with high frequencies of both kdr mutations were resistant to both type I and II pyrethroids. These results suggest that Ae. aegypti from Colombia have developed multiple resistance mechanisms associated with pyrethroid resistance; therefore a resistance management strategy against these field populations of Ae. Aegypti, incorporating these findings is strongly recommended.