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Temporal trends in organophosphorus pesticides use and concentrations in river water in Japan, and risk assessment

Derbalah, Aly, Chidya, Russel, Jadoon, Waqar, Sakugawa, Hiroshi
Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2019 v.79 pp. 135-152
aquatic environment, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ecotoxicology, fenitrothion, fungicides, glyphosate, humans, malathion, risk, risk assessment, river water, Japan
We reviewed organophosphorus pesticide use in Japan between 1982 and 2016 using data from the National Institute of Environmental Studies. Organophosphorus pesticide concentrations in river water throughout Japan were taken from the literature, and risk assessments were performed for some organophosphorus pesticides based on risk quotients and hazard quotients. Assessments were performed for 20 common pesticides, including insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. The amounts used decreased in the order: insecticides > herbicides > fungicides. Organophosphorus insecticide and fungicide use have decreased over the last four decades, but organophosphorus herbicide use has increased. During this period, annual organophosphorus pesticide use was the highest for chlorpyrifos (105,263 tons/year) and the lowest for glyphosate-sodium (8 tons/year). The ecotoxicological risk assessment indicated that diazinon and fenitrothion posed strong risks to the Japanese aquatic environment, and chlorpyrifos and malathion have moderate risks. None of the pesticides that were assessed posed significant risks to humans. Continued use of organophosphorus pesticides in Japan may cause strong risks to aquatic environments. These risks should be reassessed periodically.