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Diversity analysis of intestinal microflora between healthy and diarrheal neonatal piglets from the same litter in different regions

Han, Chunsheng, Dai, Yimin, Liu, Baosheng, Wang, Linkang, Wang, Jingqi, Zhang, Jinhua
Anaerobe 2019 v.55 pp. 136-141
Bacteroidetes, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Proteobacteria, Streptococcus, community structure, diarrhea, discriminant analysis, genes, intestinal microorganisms, microbial communities, piglets, ribosomal RNA, species diversity, China
Though the problem of neonatal piglet diarrhea is well known, the differences in the bacterial diversity and community composition between healthy and diarrheal piglets are still unknown. We investigated these differences in neonatal piglets from Jiangxi Province, China. Healthy (H, n = 20) and diarrheal (D, n = 20) piglets were selected from six regions. The fecal microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing the V3V4 region of 16S rRNA gene. We found the ratio of major phyla (Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) was >99% of 7 phyla. The overall alpha diversity indices, such as chao, sobs, coverage and Shannon, were not significantly different. Moreover, the relative abundance of the predicted functions was highly similar in the two groups. Our results indicated that Clostridium was divided into two major groups: Clostridium sensu stricto_1 and stricto_2. Sensu stricto_2 was highly abundant in the D group and low abundance in the H group, whereas the results of sensu stricto_1 were opposite. Comparative analyses within the H or D groups showed that Escherichia-Shigella and Streptococcus at the genus level and unclassified Lactobacillus at the species level were significant difference. Comparative analyses of the two groups showed that unclassified Prevotellaceae at the genus level and Fusobacterium mortifierum were significantly different and had high linear discriminant analysis (LDA) scores. The significantly different microbes composition results also existed in the same litter, based on excluding regions influence. These results suggested that piglet diarrhea was closely associated with these microbes. This study provides insights into gut microbial interactions and prevention of piglet diarrhea.