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Detection of Ptaquilosides in different phenologic stages of Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and analysis of milk samples in farms with hematuria in Tolima, Colombia

Diego F. Rincon, Gonzalo J. Diaz, Dale R. Gardner
Revista CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia 2016 v.11 no.1 pp. 72-77
Pteridium aquilinum, cattle, detection limit, farms, food contamination, hematuria, high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, meadows, milk, milk analysis, mountains, neoplasms, phenology, ptaquiloside, towns, toxicity, weeds, Colombia
Bracken fern or “Helecho Macho” (Pteridium aquilinum) is one of the most common weeds in the meadows of the mountain ranges of Colombia. Consumption of this palatable plant by bovines causes a disease known as bovine enzootic hematuria and esophageal neoplasia. The toxic effect of the plant in bovines is caused by the ptaquiloside, main carcinogenic toxin of this plant. In this study, eight samples of Bracken fern in different phenologic stages and 16 milk samples collected in two towns of Tolima, Líbano and Murillo, were analized. In both cases, Highperformance liquid cromatography (HPLC) coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MS) was used. In all Bracken fern samples analized, detectable levels of ptaquilosides were observed, ranging from 23 to 1194 μg/g, with a 342 μg/g mean. No detectable levels of ptaquilosides were found in the milk samples. The results show a great variation in the content of ptaquilosides depending on the phenologic stage and collection site of the plant. It is posible that the reported instability of the ptaquiloside and the processing given to the milk samples could have caused the lack of detection of the compound in milk.