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Microplastics in the environment: A review of analytical methods, distribution, and biological effects

Shaoliang Zhang, Jiuqi Wang, Xu Liu, Fengjuan Qu, Xueshan Wang, Xinrui Wang, Yu Li, Yankun Sun
Trends in analytical chemistry 2019 v.111 pp. 62-72
additives, analytical methods, aquatic ecosystems, bioactive properties, environmental assessment, microplastics, pollution, risk, risk assessment, terrestrial ecosystems
Microplastics (MP) (<5 mm) are crucial pollution which are widely distributes in the environment. Recently, the studies of MP have increased rapidly due to increasing awareness of the potential and growing risks of biological effects during storage and disposal. However, due to limitations in analytical methods and the methods of environmental risk assessment, the distribution and biological effects of MP are still debatable issues. To clarify the potentially environmental and biological impacts of MP in the consecutive environment, (1) analytical methods to assess MP, (2) environmental transportation and distribution of MP and (3) the effects of MP on biota, including the additives and sorption-desorption of MP in both terrestrial ecosystem and aquatic ecosystems were summarized. Based on the reviewed publications, we propose considerations for addressing the insufficiencies of analytical methods, distribution and biological effects of MP in ecosystems so we can adequately safeguard global ecosystems.