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A 5-day high-fat diet rich in cottonseed oil improves cholesterol profiles and triglycerides compared to olive oil in healthy men
- Polley, Kristine R., Oswell, Natalie J., Pegg, Ronald B., Paton, Chad M., Cooper, Jamie A.
- Nutrition research 2018 v.60 pp. 43-53
- animal models, blood lipids, cardiovascular diseases, cottonseed oil, cross-over studies, dietary fat, fasting, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high fat diet, lipid content, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, men, olive oil, test meals, triacylglycerols
- Modifying dietary fat composition is important for minimizing cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 5-day, high-fat diet rich in cottonseed oil (CSO) or olive oil (OO) on lipid profiles. Based on previous human and animal models, we hypothesized that the CSO-rich diet would lead to lower fasting and postprandial lipid levels, whereas the OO-rich diet would not significantly change lipid levels in 5 days. Fifteen normal-weight men completed a randomized crossover design with 2 controlled feeding trials (3-day lead-in diet, prediet visit, 5-day CSO- or OO-rich diet, postdiet visit). The 5-day diets (50% fat) were rich in either CSO or OO. At pre- and postdiet visits, subjects consumed test meals rich in the oil that coincided with their 5-day diet, and blood draws were performed. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were lower following CSO diet intervention (total cholesterol: 148.40 ± 6.39 to 135.93 ± 6.31 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: 92.20 ± 5.57 to 78.13 ± 5.60 mg/dL; TG: 80.11 ± 4.91 to 56.37 ± 5.46 mg/dL for pre- to postdiet, respectively; P < .05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased following CSO diet intervention (46.67 ± 2.41 to 50.24 ± 2.20 mg/dL for pre- to postdiet, respectively; P < .05). Postprandial TGs were lower following CSO diet (area under the curve of 954.28 ± 56.90 vs 722.16 ± 56.15 mg/dL/8 h for pre- vs postdiet, respectively; P < .01). No changes in blood lipids were found following OO diet. A 5-day CSO-rich diet led to improvements in cholesterol and TGs, whereas no changes were observed with an OO-rich diet.