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A 5-day high-fat diet rich in cottonseed oil improves cholesterol profiles and triglycerides compared to olive oil in healthy men

Polley, Kristine R., Oswell, Natalie J., Pegg, Ronald B., Paton, Chad M., Cooper, Jamie A.
Nutrition research 2018 v.60 pp. 43-53
animal models, blood lipids, cardiovascular diseases, cottonseed oil, cross-over studies, dietary fat, fasting, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high fat diet, lipid content, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, men, olive oil, test meals, triacylglycerols
Modifying dietary fat composition is important for minimizing cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 5-day, high-fat diet rich in cottonseed oil (CSO) or olive oil (OO) on lipid profiles. Based on previous human and animal models, we hypothesized that the CSO-rich diet would lead to lower fasting and postprandial lipid levels, whereas the OO-rich diet would not significantly change lipid levels in 5 days. Fifteen normal-weight men completed a randomized crossover design with 2 controlled feeding trials (3-day lead-in diet, prediet visit, 5-day CSO- or OO-rich diet, postdiet visit). The 5-day diets (50% fat) were rich in either CSO or OO. At pre- and postdiet visits, subjects consumed test meals rich in the oil that coincided with their 5-day diet, and blood draws were performed. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were lower following CSO diet intervention (total cholesterol: 148.40 ± 6.39 to 135.93 ± 6.31 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: 92.20 ± 5.57 to 78.13 ± 5.60 mg/dL; TG: 80.11 ± 4.91 to 56.37 ± 5.46 mg/dL for pre- to postdiet, respectively; P < .05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased following CSO diet intervention (46.67 ± 2.41 to 50.24 ± 2.20 mg/dL for pre- to postdiet, respectively; P < .05). Postprandial TGs were lower following CSO diet (area under the curve of 954.28 ± 56.90 vs 722.16 ± 56.15 mg/dL/8 h for pre- vs postdiet, respectively; P < .01). No changes in blood lipids were found following OO diet. A 5-day CSO-rich diet led to improvements in cholesterol and TGs, whereas no changes were observed with an OO-rich diet.