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Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against cadmium-induced hepatic and cardiac injuries in male Wistar rats through antioxidative mechanisms
- Bhattacharjee, Bharati, Pal, Palash Kumar, Ghosh, Arnab Kumar, Mishra, Sanatan, Chattopadhyay, Aindrila, Bandyopadhyay, Debasish
- Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.124 pp. 249-264
- Terminalia arjuna, antioxidant activity, bark, biomarkers, cadmium, chemical constituents of plants, enzymes, free radical scavengers, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, heart diseases, heavy metals, histology, laboratory animals, males, membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane, oral administration, oxidative stress, protective effect, rats, toxicity
- Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most ubiquitous toxic heavy metal in the environment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective role of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against Cd induced oxidative damage in hepatic and cardiac tissues as the TA bark extract has folkloric medicinal use in the treatment of various hepatic and cardiac disorders. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group was treated with normal saline as the vehicle; the second group orally administered with TA (20 mg/kg bw) daily for 15 days; the third group injected with Cd-acetate (0.44 mg/kg bw, s.c.) every alternate day for a period of 15 days; and the fourth group was administered with TA, 60 min prior to Cd treatment. The biomarkers of organ damage were significantly increased in the Cd treated groups. Besides, a significant alteration in the tissue levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, the activities and the levels of antioxidant enzymes was observed following treatment with Cd. Additionally, some of the enzymes were found to be inhibited uncompetitively by Cd when tested in an in vitro system. Furthermore, evidence gathered from studies on the histological parameters and mitochondrial membrane potential in both the tissues argue in favour of the possible protective role of TA against Cd induced damage. Finally, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed the presence of eight major bioactive phytochemicals in aqueous bark extract of TA having potent free radical scavenging property. The results indicate that the extract could protect hepatic and cardiac tissues against Cd-induced oxidative stress mediated damages through antioxidant mechanism(s).