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Comparative estrogenicity of endogenous, environmental and dietary estrogens in pregnant women II: Total estrogenicity calculations accounting for competitive protein and receptor binding and potency

Pande, Paritosh, Fleck, Stefanie C., Twaddle, Nathan C., Churchwell, Mona I., Doerge, Daniel R., Teeguarden, Justin G.
Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.125 pp. 341-353
blood serum, daidzein, environmental monitoring, estrogens, genistein, ligands, mass spectrometry, pregnant women, receptors, toxicology
Evaluating the biological significance of human-relevant exposures to environmental estrogens involves assessing the individual and total estrogenicity of endogenous and exogenous estrogens found in serum, for example from biomonitoring studies. We developed a method for this assessment by integrating approaches for (i) measuring total hormone concentrations by mass spectrometry (Fleck et al., 2018), (ii) calculating hormone bioavailable concentrations in serum and, (iii) solving multiple equilibria between estrogenic ligands and receptors, and (iv) quantitatively describing key elements of estrogen potency. The approach was applied to endogenous (E1, E2, E3, E4), environmental (BPA), and dietary Genistein (GEN), Daidzein (DDZ) estrogens measured in the serum of thirty pregnant women. Fractional receptor occupancy (FRO) based estrogenicity was dominated by E1, E2 and E3 (ER-α, 94.4–99.2% (median: 97.3%), ER-β, 82.7–97.7% (median: 92.8%), as was the total response (TR), which included ligand specific differences in recruitment of co-activator proteins (RCA). The median FRO for BPA was at least five orders of magnitude lower than E1, E2 and E3, and three orders of magnitude lower than the fetal derived E4 and GEN and DDZ. BPA contributed less than 1/1000th of the normal daily variability in total serum estrogenicity in this cohort of pregnant women.