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Emergence and the spread of the F200Y benzimidazole resistance mutation in Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei from buffalo and cattle
- Ali, Qasim, Rashid, Imran, Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair, Aziz-Ul-Rahman,, Shahzad, Kashif, Ashraf, Kamran, Sargison, Neil D., Chaudhry, Umer
- Veterinary parasitology 2019 v.265 pp. 48-54
- Haemonchus contortus, Haemonchus placei, benzimidazole, buffaloes, cattle, haplotypes, hosts, mutation, parasites, phylogeny, small ruminants
- Benzimidazoles have been intensively (for over 40 years) used in the livestock sector, particularly in small ruminants. This has been led to the widespread emergence of resistance in a number of small ruminant parasite species, especially Haemonchus contortus. In many countries benzimidazole resistance has severely compromised the control of H. contortus in small ruminants; but there is a little information on benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus infecting buffalo and cattle. Resistance to benzimidazoles have also been reported in the large ruminant parasite, Haemonchus placei, but again there is relatively little information on its prevalence. Hence it is very important to understand how resistance-conferring mutations emerge and spread in both parasites in buffalo and cattle hosts in order to develop approaches for the recognition of the problem at an early stage of its development. The present study suggests that the F200Y (TAC) mutation is common in H. contortus, being detected in 5/7 populations at frequencies between 7 and 57%. Furthermore, 6/10 H. placei populations contained the F200Y (TAC) mutation, albeit at low frequencies of between 0.4 and 5%. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that the F200Y (TAC) mutation in H. contortus has emerged on multiple occasions in the region, with at least three independent emergences across the populations. In contrast, the F200Y (TAC) resistance-conferring mutation in H. placei is only seen on a single haplotype. A high level frequency of the resistance haplotypes in the region, suggests that the unique resistance conferring-mutation has spread from a single emergence; likely by anthropogenic animal movement. Overall, these results provide the first clear genetic evidence for the spread of benzimidazole resistance-conferring mutations to multiple different locations from a single emergence in H. placei; while being consistent with previous small ruminant-based observations of multiple emergence of resistance mutations in H. contortus.