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Minor cereals exhibit superior antioxidant effects on human epithelial cells compared to common wheat cultivars

Akkoc, Yunus, Lyubenova, Lyudmila, Grausgruber, Heinrich, Janovská, Dagmar, Yazici, Atilla, Cakmak, Ismail, Gozuacik, Devrim
Journal of cereal science 2019 v.85 pp. 143-152
DNA, DNA damage, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, cell culture, cell death, cell viability, cultivars, epithelial cells, ethanol, genotype, human cell lines, humans, mitochondria, oats, rye, wheat
In the present study, various minor cereals including rye, oat, spelt, primitive and wild wheat species (20 genotypes each) were tested for their antioxidative effects in cell biological studies, and the effects were compared with the effects of 12 common wheat genotypes. Ethanol soluble extracts of grains were used and studied in human cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (cervical) and HCT116 (colorectal) cell lines by analyzing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial health, DNA damage and cell survival. The cereal genotypes were also examined for the total phenolic concentration (TPC) and for the relationship between oxidative cell damage and TPC values. Most genotypes of the minor cereal species showed superior antioxidant effects in human cell cultures compared to the common wheat genotypes. Many of the minor cereal genotypes with high antioxidant capacities protected DNA and mitochondrial damage and prevented cell death in HeLa cells and colon-derived HCT116 human epithelial cells. There was no significant relationship between TPC values and oxidative cell damage. However, common wheat genotypes had, on average, lower TPC values. The results show that minor cereals contain potentially high levels of certain antioxidant substances which might be useful in preventing oxidative damage in cellular systems.