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Expression and role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors in the porcine early placenta trophoblast

Blitek, A., Szymanska, M.
Domestic animal endocrinology 2019 v.67 pp. 42-53
DNA, agonists, antagonists, cell proliferation, endocrinology, fatty acids, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, messenger RNA, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, pregnancy, prostaglandin-E synthase, prostaglandins, protein content, steroidogenesis, swine, trophoblast
Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) are members of a nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Three isoforms of PPAR named PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ have been described, each encoded by a separate gene: PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG, respectively. In the present study, we examined the profiles of PPAR and retinoid X receptor (RXR; PPAR heterodimer partner) mRNA expression and PPAR DNA binding activity in porcine trophoblast tissue collected on days 15, 20, 25, and 30 of pregnancy and in day-20 embryos. Placenta trophoblast cells isolated on day 25 of pregnancy were used to determine effects of (1) cytokines on PPAR and RXR mRNA expression and (2) PPAR agonists on prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthesis and the expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, fatty acid binding, and PG transport, as well as on cell proliferation. The mRNA expression of PPARA and RXRB was greater in trophoblast tissue collected on days 25 and 30 of pregnancy compared with day 15 (P < 0.05), while DNA binding activity of PPARα decreased between day 15 and 25 (P < 0.05). Increased concentrations of PPARD and RXRA transcripts were observed in trophoblasts collected on day 20 compared to trophoblasts from days 15 and 30 (P < 0.05). Moreover, concentrations of DNA-bound PPARβ/δ and PPARγ proteins increased in day-30 trophoblasts compared to day 15 (P < 0.01) and day 20 (P < 0.05), respectively. On day 20 of gestation, the mRNA expression of PPARD, PPARG, and RXRA and protein levels of PPARα and PPARγ isoforms were greater in trophoblast than embryonic tissue (P < 0.01). Interleukin 1β and/or interferon γ, but not IL6 and leukemia inhibitory factor, upregulated PPAR and RXR mRNA expression in placenta trophoblast cells in vitro (P < 0.05). Rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) stimulated prostaglandin E synthase mRNA expression in trophoblast cells and PGE2 accumulation in incubation medium (P < 0.05). Moreover, activation of PPAR isoforms differentially affected the expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, fatty acid binding, and PG transport in studied cells. Finally, PPARα and PPARγ agonists stimulated trophoblast cell proliferation (P < 0.05), and this effect was abolished by the addition of a respective PPAR antagonist (P < 0.05). Overall, these results point to a role of PPAR isoforms in porcine placenta development and function.