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Sarcopenia and cardiovascular risk indices in patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative and replacement therapy

Lai, Silvia, Muscaritoli, Maurizio, Andreozzi, Paola, Sgreccia, Alessandro, De Leo, Sabrina, Mazzaferro, Sandro, Mitterhofer, Anna Paola, Pasquali, Marzia, Protopapa, Paolo, Spagnoli, Alessandra, Amabile, Maria Ida, Molfino, Alessio
Nutrition 2019 v.62 pp. 108-114
acidosis, adipose tissue, atherosclerosis, bioelectrical impedance, cognition, dialysis, hemodialysis, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, inflammation, kidney diseases, males, mortality, muscles, patients, prognosis, protein intake, risk factors, sarcopenia, vitamin D deficiency
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition with high cardiovascular mortality associated with emerging risk factors, including sarcopenia. Several mechanisms can affect muscle mass, such as vitamin D deficiency, low protein intake, physical inactivity, metabolic acidosis, and inflammation leading to a worsening of cardiovascular outcomes and cognitive function.We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in CKD patients on conservative and replacement therapy and the associations between sarcopenia and markers of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, psychological and cognitive function.We enrolled CKD patients (stage 3/5 KDIGO [Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes]) and hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and post–kidney transplant patients. Clinical, laboratory and instrumental assessments, including bioimpedance analysis, hand-grip strength, intima media thickness, flow-mediated dilation, and epicardial adipose tissue, were performed in addition to analysis of psychological and cognitive status by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale.A total of 77 patients (43 male) with a mean age of 69.6 ± 9.85 y were studied. According to validated criteria (using bioimpedance analysis and hand-grip strength), the prevalence of sarcopenia was 49.4%. Sarcopenic patients had higher values of intima media thickness (P = 0.032) and epicardial adipose tissue (P = 0.012) and lower flow-mediated dilation (P = 0.002), total cholesterol (P = 0.005), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.008) with respect to non-sarcopenic patients. We found higher Geriatric Depression Scale scores (P = 0.04) in sarcopenic patients, whereas we did not find differences between the two groups in Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score.Sarcopenia is highly prevalent in CKD/end stage renal disease patients and is associated with changes in early systemic indices of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction, known as markers of worse prognosis.