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Bioavailability and palatability of praziquantel incorporated into solid-lipid nanoparticles fed to yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi

Partridge, Gavin J., Rao, Shasha, Woolley, Lindsey D., Pilmer, Luke, Lymbery, Alan J., Prestidge, Clive A.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.218 pp. 14-20
Monogenea, Peyer's patches, Seriola lalandi, bioavailability, bitterness, castor oil, chitosan, coatings, fish, lipids, mammals, nanoparticles, palatability, parasites, pelleted feeds, pharmacokinetics, praziquantel, therapeutics
In an effort to overcome the palatability issues currently constraining the effective delivery of praziquantel (PZQ) via feed to treat monogenean parasites in yellowtail kingfish, this study compared the bioavailability and palatability of PZQ in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) against pure PZQ in this species. Improving bioavailability would facilitate lower dietary inclusion levels to achieve the same therapeutic dose and therefore reduce the bitterness of feeds containing PZQ. Bioavailability was determined by co-administering feed with either pure PZQ, HCO-SLN or HCO-SLN coated with chitosan via intubation and quantifying the pharmacokinetics response. In contrast to studies with mammals, the results demonstrated that PZQ in HCO-SLN had equal bioavailability to pure PZQ in yellowtail kingfish, including when HCO-SLN were coated with chitosan. We hypothesise that the lack of improvement in bioavailability may be due to the lack of M cells and Peyer's patches in fish and the subsequent inability of fish to take nanoparticles directly into the lymphatic system. Furthermore, palatability of the feeds medicated with PZQ was not improved when the PZQ was incorporated into HCO-SLN, possibly due to the low loading rate of PZQ within the HCO-SLN and the subsequent thick coating of nanoparticles that was required on the surface of the feed pellets. Combined, these data demonstrate that the SLN used in the current study are not capable of delivering the benefits required to enable effective in-feed treatment of PZQ against monogenean parasites in yellowtail kingfish.