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Long-term effects of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure application on productivity, sustainability and profitability of rice-wheat system in Mollisols

Singh, Dhananjay Kumar, Pandey, Pooran Chandra, Nanda, Gangadhar, Gupta, Shilpi
Archiv für Acker- und Pflanzenbau und Bodenkunde 2019 v.65 no.2 pp. 139-151
Mollisols, NPK fertilizers, animal manures, fertilizer application, grain yield, long term effects, manure spreading, mineral fertilizers, profitability, profits and margins, rice, soil organic carbon, wheat, zinc, India
In this investigation, productivity, sustainability and profitability of rice-wheat system were evaluated using the data of a long-term fertility experiment initiated during 1984 at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India. Eight treatments (application of N, NP, PK, NK, NPK, NPK + Zn, NPK + FYM and control) were tested in randomized block design. Results revealed that application of NPK + FYM gave the highest and sustainable grain yields for rice, wheat and the system. None of the treatments except NPK + FYM was able to enhance the soil organic carbon content after 31 crop cycles over the initial level. Application of NPK + FYM was the most profitable treatment which provided the highest net return and B: C ratio for rice, wheat and the system. Trend analysis indicated that there were yield declines in all the treatments. Response to P, K and Zn in rice and wheat, and to FYM in terms of system productivity increased over the studied period. The results suggest that continuous application of NPK + FYM would sustain higher yields of rice and wheat over longer period of time with higher profits in rice-wheat system.