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Long-term effects of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure application on productivity, sustainability and profitability of rice-wheat system in Mollisols
- Singh, Dhananjay Kumar, Pandey, Pooran Chandra, Nanda, Gangadhar, Gupta, Shilpi
- Archiv für Acker- und Pflanzenbau und Bodenkunde 2019 v.65 no.2 pp. 139-151
- Mollisols, NPK fertilizers, animal manures, fertilizer application, grain yield, long term effects, manure spreading, mineral fertilizers, profitability, profits and margins, rice, soil organic carbon, wheat, zinc, India
- In this investigation, productivity, sustainability and profitability of rice-wheat system were evaluated using the data of a long-term fertility experiment initiated during 1984 at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India. Eight treatments (application of N, NP, PK, NK, NPK, NPK + Zn, NPK + FYM and control) were tested in randomized block design. Results revealed that application of NPK + FYM gave the highest and sustainable grain yields for rice, wheat and the system. None of the treatments except NPK + FYM was able to enhance the soil organic carbon content after 31 crop cycles over the initial level. Application of NPK + FYM was the most profitable treatment which provided the highest net return and B: C ratio for rice, wheat and the system. Trend analysis indicated that there were yield declines in all the treatments. Response to P, K and Zn in rice and wheat, and to FYM in terms of system productivity increased over the studied period. The results suggest that continuous application of NPK + FYM would sustain higher yields of rice and wheat over longer period of time with higher profits in rice-wheat system.