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The effect of soil-climate conditions on yielding parameters, chemical composition and baking quality of ancient wheat species Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccum Schrank and Triticum spelt L. in comparison with modern Triticum aestivum L.

Hlisnikovský, Lukáš, Hejcman, Michal, Kunzová, Eva, Menšík, Ladislav
Archiv für Acker- und Pflanzenbau und Bodenkunde 2019 v.65 no.2 pp. 152-163
Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta, Triticum monococcum, Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon, baking quality, crude protein, gluten, grain yield, mineral content, straw, wheat
Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccum Schrank and Triticum spelt L. nowadays offer an alternative to Triticum aestivum L. We analyzed grain and straw yield, yielding parameters, chemical composition and bakery quality of these species and compared them with modern T. aestivum at three sites with different soil-climate conditions. The average grain yield varied from 0.41 t ha⁻¹ (T. monococcum) to 5.17 t ha⁻¹ (T. aestivum), straw yield varied from 1.50 t ha⁻¹ (T. dicoccum) to 5.83 t ha⁻¹ (T. aestivum). The yielding parameters and chemical composition of the grain were significantly influenced by soil-climate conditions and wheat species. The highest average crude protein content was recorded in T. spelta (20.55%), while the lowest in T. aestivum (11.20%). The Zeleny’s sedimentation test ranged from 9.0 ml (T. monococcum) to 34.5 ml (T. aestivum) and the value of the Gluten index varied from 7.45 (T. dicoccum) to 89.75 (T. aestivum). According to the results, ancient wheat species provides lower grain and straw yields, higher protein content and mineral concentrations. Concentration of proteins and grain’s baking quality strongly depends on wheat species and soil-climate conditions.