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Phosphorus-induced zinc deficiency in wheat pot-grown on noncalcareous and calcareous soils of different properties

Sacristán, Daniel, González–Guzmán, Adrian, Barrón, Vidal, Torrent, José, Del Campillo, María C.
Archiv für Acker- und Pflanzenbau und Bodenkunde 2019 v.65 no.2 pp. 208-223
Triticum turgidum subsp. durum, bioavailability, calcareous soils, calcite, durum wheat, grain yield, iron oxides, nutrient deficiencies, phosphates, phosphorus, zinc
High levels of phosphorus (P) often induce zinc (Zn) deficiency in plants grown on Zn-poor soils. We investigated P-induced Zn deficiency in durum wheat (Triticum durum L. ‘Carpio’) grown on 16 noncalcareous and 31 calcareous soils differing in levels of available (Olsen) P and available (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable) Zn using micropots. A completely randomized factorial design with two levels of P (0 and 40 mg P kg⁻¹ soil) and Zn (0 and 3 mg Zn kg⁻¹ soil), i.e. four treatments (‘control’, + P, + Zn, and + PZn), were used. Grain yield of control plants depended mainly on the Olsen P level. Phosphorus had a negative effect on yield in 6 soils with Olsen P/ZnDTPA > 25, and Zn a positive one in 5 soils with Olsen P/ZnDTPA > 50; and the + PZn treatment generally resulted in the highest yield. Grain Zn concentration of control plants was negatively correlated with growth and Olsen P. Calcareous soils were less sensitive to P-induced Zn deficiency than noncalcareous soils because phosphate is sorbed by calcite rather than being co-adsorbed with Zn on the Fe oxides. Co-application of P and Zn to soil at low and application of Zn at high Olsen P ensured both maximum yield and grain Zn bioavailability.