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Crop Yield and the Quality of Sunflower Seeds in the Use of Fertilizers and Growth Regulation Substances

Kvashin, A. A., Neshchadim, N. N., Yablonskay, E. K., Gorpinchenko, K. N.
Helia 2018 v.41 no.69 pp. 227-239
Helianthus annuus, cost effectiveness, crop yield, crops, fertilizer rates, leaf area, lipid content, monitoring, nitrogen fertilizers, nutritional status, photosynthesis, plant density, plant growth substances, seed quality, seeds, sunflower seed, vegetation, Russia
In the Russian Federation the most favorable area for high and stable yields of sunflower crop is the Northern zone of Krasnodar region. The research was conducted in multivariate experience of long-term stationary monitoring. We researched the effect of doses of mineral fertilizers and furolan on sunflower yield and seed quality. It was found that it is expedient and cost-effective to use small doses of nitrogen fertilizers for sunflower. The expediency of application of plant growth regulator (Furolan) during vegetation is shown. We found that the use of mineral fertilizers and the use of furolan contributed to the activation of growth processes of sunflower plants which led to the formation of optimal plant density. Improving the nutritional status of plants has provided an increase in the leaf area unit. The treatment of sunflower crops on the background of fertilizers N₂₀P₃₀ and the furolan has had a positive impact on the value of photosynthetic potential. Under the influence of mineral fertilizers there was an increase in the dissemination of the sunflower head, weight of seeds and weight of 1000 seeds, which has a positive impact on productivity. With the increase of fertilizer doses, the oil content of seeds increased when compared to the unfertilized variant. The treatment of plants with furolan has not violated the process of accumulation of protein and fat.