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Parasitological evidence pertaining to the phylogeny of the hominoid primates

Glen, David R., Brooks, Daniel R.
Biological journal of the Linnean Society 1986 v.27 no.4 pp. 331-354
Enterobius, Gorilla, Homo, Oesophagostomum, Pongo, coevolution, data collection, hookworms, host-parasite relationships, humans, phylogeny, systematic review, uncertainty
A systematic review of parasitological data pertaining to the phylogeny of hominoid primates revealed considerable internal consistency and congruence with non-parasitological data. Hylobatids are supported as the sister-group of Pongo + Pan + Gorilla, the ‘Great Apes’. Within the Great Apes, Pan + Gorilla are sister taxa. Multiple analyses of presence/absence data place Homo with cercopithecids, probably an artefact of humans' widespread occurrence and polymorphic feeding and living habits. Explicit phylogenetic hypotheses are available for only two parasite groups. Hookworms of the genus Oesophagostomum subgenus Conoweberia place Homo as the sister-group of Pan + Gorilla, whereas pinworms of the genus Enterobius place Homo as the sister-group of Pongo + Pan + Gorilla. This disagreement among data sets with regards to the placement of Homo, combined with the complete agreement about the placement of the other hominoids, is consistent with uncertainties in current findings from other sets of data.