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Cloning and functional characterization of the Rvi15 (Vr2) gene for apple scab resistance
- Schouten, Henk J., Brinkhuis, Jos, van der Burgh, Aranka, Schaart, Jan G., Groenwold, Remmelt, Broggini, Giovanni A. L., Gessler, Cesare
- Tree genetics & genomes 2014 v.10 no.2 pp. 251-260
- Venturia inaequalis, apoplast, apples, cultivars, cytoplasm, genes, hypersensitive response, induced resistance, interleukin-1, introns, mammals, pathogens, proteins, sporulation
- Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is a serious disease of apple. Previously, the scab resistance Rvi15 (Vr2) from the accession GMAL 2473 was genetically mapped, and three candidate resistance genes were identified. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of these three genes, named Vr2-A, Vr2-B, and Vr2-C. Each gene was cloned with its native promoter, terminator and introns, and inserted into the susceptible apple cultivar ‘Gala’. Inoculation of the plants containing Vr2-A and Vr2-B induced no resistance symptoms, but abundant sporulation. However, inoculation of the plants harboring Vr2-C showed a hypersensitive response with clear pinpoint pits, and no or very little sporulation. We conclude that Vr2-C is the Rvi15 (Vr2) gene. This gene belongs to the Toll and mammalian interleukin-1 receptor protein nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat structure resistance gene family. The proteins of this gene family reside in the cytoplasm, whereas V. inaequalis develops in the apoplast, between the epidermis and cuticle, without making haustoria. The spatial separation of the recognizing resistance protein and the pathogen is discussed. This is the second cloned gene for apple scab resistance, and out of these two the only one leading to a symplastic protein.