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Effect of milled flaxseed and storage conditions on sensory properties and selected bioactive compounds in banana and cinnamon muffins used in a clinical trial

Santiago, Amalia, Ryland, Donna, Cui, Steve, Blewett, Heather, Aliani, Michel
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2019 v.99 no.2 pp. 831-843
alpha-linolenic acid, bananas, bioactive compounds, cinnamon, clinical trials, cohesion, color, cross-over studies, flavor, flax, ingredients, linseed, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, mouth, muffins, odors, storage temperature
BACKGROUND: Muffins containing 0, 20, and 30 g of flaxseed were developed for a randomized, controlled cross‐over trial on low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering. The effect of milled flaxseed and storage (−20 °C for 1 and 6 months) of banana and cinnamon muffins on sensory attribute intensities, selected physical properties, bioactive concentrations, and acceptability by two groups – clinical trial participants and consumers – was investigated. RESULTS: The addition of flax increased flax aroma and flavor, sour aroma, and cohesiveness of mass and brown color, and decreased sweet aroma and flavor, banana and cinnamon aroma and flavor, springiness and mouth dryness. Alpha‐linolenic acid and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside were significantly increased when flax was increased from 20 to 30 g. Clinical trial participants generally found the muffins more acceptable than the consumers. Consumers reported significantly decreased acceptability when flax at any level was added to muffins, with 30 g the least acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Muffins with 20 g flaxseed generally had higher mean acceptability values compared to muffins with 30 g. Neither flavoring nor storage at −20 °C for 6 months appreciably changed muffin attributes or acceptability. Future work will optimize the ingredients as well as the amount of flax needed to provide the required amount of bioactive to positively affect LDL cholesterol level and to produce acceptable muffins. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry