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Effects of Bentonite Application and Urea Fertilization Time on Growth, Development and Nitrate Accumulation in Spinach (Spinacia oleraceae L.)

Bandian, Leila, Nemati, Hosein, Moghaddam, Mohammad
Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2019 v.50 no.1 pp. 1-9
Spinacia oleracea, bentonite, fertilizer application, humans, nitrates, nitrites, oxalic acid, planting, risk, soil, sowing date, spinach, urea, urea fertilizers
Under excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer, vegetables can accumulate high levels of nitrate in their vegetative body and, when consumed by living organisms, pose serious health-related risks for humans. Regarding such problems, it is necessary to minimize the accumulation of nitrate in leafy vegetables. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate bentonite levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 g/kg soil) application and urea fertilization times (25, 50, 75 days after sowing; at the rate of 0.2 g per pot) on the growth, development and nitrate accumulation of spinach. Results showed that urea fertilization on 25 days after sowing date had the highest effect on the quality, while application of 60 gr bentonite had the highest effect on the improvement of growth parameters of spinach. The lowest nitrate and nitrite accumulation rate was observed at urea fertilization on 50 days after planting and lack of bentonite application, whereas the lowest oxalic acid content was obtained at urea fertilization on 25 days after planting in a soil without bentonite application. The results showed that implementing an appropriate rate of bentonite and urea fertilization times may bring about favorable results for spinach production.